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Introduction of automotive connectors

Time: 2021-02-18

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Introduction of automotive connectors

Automotive connectors are widely used connectors, and automotive circuits are inseparable from them, ranging from engine modules to camera modules. Its function is to connect circuits and build a bridge of communication. For such an important part, we need to understand it in detail.


1. Basic structure

General automotive connectors are divided into four structural components:

One, outer plastic. The outer plastic is usually made of low-temperature and high-temperature injection molding. The low-temperature outer plastic is suitable for the Wave Solder process, and the high-temperature outer plastic is suitable for the SMT process. The main function of the outer plastic is to provide the retaining force of the male and female connectors through the buckle on the outer plastic.



Automotive connectors



Second, the shielding shell. The shielding shell is generally made of zinc alloy, usually die-casting, and the copper surface is galvanized. The role of the shielding shell: shielding the signal to prevent external signals from interfering with the work of the connector.


Third, the inner plastic. The inner plastic is generally a plastic part. Through injection molding, the plastic pellets of the inner plastic must be purchased. Its dielectric constant affects the high-frequency characteristics of the connector. Internal plastic function: contain terminal


Fourth, the terminal. The terminals are generally metal stamping parts, which are formed by stamping, and the general materials are brass and phosphor bronze. Terminal function: the common segment contacts with the female terminal to transmit signals.



Automotive connectors



2. Design standards

With the rapid development of the automobile industry, various functional parts and various parts of automobiles are constantly developing in the direction of intelligence, refinement and reliability. The structural design, appearance design and materials of automobile connectors are also proposed higher requirement. Automotive connectors must meet the USCAR-20 standard, which is the performance standard for automotive electrical connector systems. It stipulates that the electrical connector contact surface of automotive connectors must always be reliable during the entire life cycle, including the following factors:


1. The material of the connector contact is stable and reliable

Second, the positive force is stable

3. The voltage and current of the circuit are stable

4. The temperature requirement is within the specified range, including the surrounding temperature and its own temperature rise

Five, better robustness

6. It must be the same as the connector used in the high-speed and long-distance communication computer, and the automobile connector must be able to work reliably under harsh conditions


Automotive connectors


3. Selection factors:

1) Electrical factors

Current requirements: high current, low current, signal level; steady state, cycling, transient, wire diameter/insulation requirements: voltage drop and/or corrosion resistance; determines the center distance of the connector. To


2) Location/environment

Temperature: engine compartment sealed, ambient temperature>105℃, vibration, fluid compatibility; humidity; fluid type; for the equipment connector, whether the equipment is sealed. To


3) Standard

Standards: customer standards; institutional standards; domestic standards; international standards

Connector performance test requirements: included in system-level specifications; for GM, Ford and Chrysler, it is usually USCAR, and engine-related applications have relatively high vibration requirements; other automakers generally have their own standards (similar to USCAR ); The equipment supplier is responsible for the performance of the matching terminal connector. The equipment occupies half of the connector interface of the board fitting. The equipment supplier is required to have a good exchange of information on the matching terminal.